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Deliberative valuation

  • Stakeholders. Municipal governments and planners, community groups, private urban development company, and NGOs.
  • Mode of assessment. Explore.
  • Method. Deliberative valuation provides a framework that includes various tools and techniques with the capacity to bridge different sciences, citizens and academia. This approach sees valuation as a social process, of identification of values through stakeholder participation.
  • How to apply the method. Deliberative valuation includes different techniques, such as: problem framing which, through local stakeholders involvement, aims at understanding issues related to ecosystem management; knowledge co-generation related to ecosystem services perceptions through collective dialogue with local participants; and decision support through the involvement of local stakeholders and residents in order to democratise decision-making processes.
  • When to apply the method. Meetings with stakeholders that aim at discussing local issues and needs to address local urban sustainability goals.
  • More information. For more information, please click here

Focus-group discussion

  • Stakeholders. Municipal governments and planners, community groups and NGOs.
  • Mode of assessment.  Explore.
  • Method. A focus group discussion is a qualitative research method from the social sciences, particularly relevant for bringing together participants from similar backgrounds to discuss particular subjects of interest in a semi-structured discussion format. Focus group discussions are led by a moderator who presents the focus topics for discussion and guides the group through broad questions that elicit feedback, diverse perceptions and values in a natural and lively manner. The purpose of this method is to bring different viewpoints to the fore and to consider alternative perspectives. There is no requirement to reach consensus.
  • How to apply the method. This method can be divided into seven steps:  (1) Definition of the subject, purpose of the discussion and development of key questions; (2) Selection of trained facilitators; (3) Development of an interview guide; (4) Selection of the participants (2-8 participants on average); (5) Organisation of the meeting logistics; (6) Conduction of the focus groups (60-90 min); (7) Analysis of collected data and reporting. While most focus group discussions are facilitated in person, in some cases this method can also be done online, in order to overcome distance barriers.
  • When to apply the method. Focus groups discussions are helpful to better understand expectations, perceptions, feelings and needs of various stakeholders, e.g. of a local community.  The method could be applied to gain information on particular challenges faced by that community that could be address by nature-based solutions.
  • More information. For more information, please click here

Participatory mapping

  • Stakeholders.Municipal governments and planners, community groups, private urban development companies, and NGOs.
  • Modes of assessment. Explore and examine.
  • Method. Participatory mapping includes a set of approaches such as Participatory Geographical Information Systems (PGIS) and Public Participation GIS (PPGIS), that aim at creating maps. This may be done, for instance, for assessing the spatial distribution of ecosystem services (ES) based on context-specific knowledge and perceptions from stakeholders. A diverse range of stakeholders can participate.
  • How to apply the method.
  1. Hands-on mapping: Stakeholders sketch maps from their own perceptions without relying on exact spatial measurements and technical equipment. They sketch key features on the map, e.g. land-use details or resources availability, in order to visualize any issues in the studied area and to understand different views from different stakeholders.
  2. Map prompting: Locating the ES that are important to the respondents on a map of the municipality in which they lives.
  3. ES-based prompting (using multidimensional cards): What listed services are important to the interviewee and why? The list is a compilation of most common Ecosystem Services (ES) evenly separated in three themes (production, regulation and cultural services). For each listed ES, the interviewee is asked to indicate the extent to which they find a service important and to justify the choices made.
  • When to apply the method. This method can be applied with the objective of understanding local communities needs related to land-use planning as well as resources management.
  • More information. How can I find more details about this method? For more information, please click here

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